Types, differences and everything you need to know about it

Diabetes mellitus is a class of metabolic diseases all of which have in common high levels of sugar in the blood (glucose) that result from problems with insulin secretion, its action, or both. Usually, blood sugar is controlled by a hormone secreted by the pancreas called insulin. When there is an increase in blood sugar, the pancreas releases insulin to normalize blood sugar. There are mainly two types of diabetes: type 1 and type 2.

Both types are chronic diseases that affect the way blood sugar levels or the regulation of glucose in the body. Glucose is like the fuel that nourishes the cells of the body, but to get into the cells it needs a key which is insulin.

Type 1: People with diabetes of this type do not produce insulin.

Type 2: People with diabetes of this type do not respond to insulin and, later in the disease, often fail to produce enough insulin.

What is insulin?

Insulin is a hormone produced by specialized cells in the pancreas. Insulin is also important to strictly control the level of glucose in the blood.

Insulin treatment:

People with type 2 diabetes may need insulin when their meal plan, weight loss, physical activity, and medications do not reach target blood sugar (sugar) levels. In a progressive disease such as diabetes, insulin injections may be needed to compensate for the decrease in production by the pancreas. Therefore, insulin treatment should never be seen as a failure.

Possible healing:

Type 1: No cure at this time, but lifelong treatment can treat symptoms. Gene therapy, regenerative medicine using stem cells, or pancreatic islet transplantation over time may become an option.

Type 2: Currently no cure, but taking measures can slow progression and manage symptoms. Symptoms can be reduced with gastric bypass in people with severe obesity.

Prevention:

Type 1: It is not yet possible to prevent.

Type 2: A healthy diet with regular exercise should be followed. If prediabetes is diagnosed, follow a doctor’s instructions.

Outlook

Diabetes is a serious illness. For type 1, insulin and other medications can help people manage symptoms and lead normal lives. Although there may be a hereditary link for both types of diabetes, the risks of type 2 diabetes can be reduced and managed by adopting a healthy lifestyle and exercising regularly. Anyone diagnosed with prediabetes should make healthy lifestyle choices to eliminate the risk of developing type 2 diabetes.

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